Quantum Electromagnetics
A Local-Ether Wave Equation Unifying
Quantum Mechanics, Electromagnetics, and Gravitation



Summary


The theory of Quantum Electromagnetics is based on a local-ether wave equation which unifies quantum mechanics, electromagnetics, and gravitation, and accounts for a wide variety of experiments. This wave equation incorporates a natural frequency and leads to the speed-dependent frequency and wavelength of the matter wave of a free particle and to its speed-dependent mass. By incorporating the electric scalar potential, the wave equation leads to the speed-dependent quantum energy of the matter wave of a particle bound in an atom. With the electric scalar potential being connected with the augmentation operator, which is derived from the Laplace operator and the velocity of the source particles, a first-order time evolution equation is derived, which represents modifications of Schrodinger's equation. From this modified equation, an electromagnetic force law is derived, which represents modifications of the Lorentz force law. From the modified force law, relationships among the spatial and temporal derivatives of the electric and magnetic fields are derived, which represent modifications of Maxwell's equations. These modified equations are substantially identical to their counterparts observed in the matrix or atom frame as done tacitly in common practice. Furthermore, by refining the d'Alembert operator in the wave equation with a gravitational potential, the gravitational force is also derived. Thereby, the wave equation leads to a unified quantum theory of gravitational and electromagnetic forces in conjunction with the wave-motion origin and the identity of gravitational and inertial mass.
       The groundwork of this wave equation is that both electromagnetic and matter waves are proposed to propagate according to the local-ether model. That is, the wave propagates via a medium like the ether. However, the ether is not universal. It is supposed that in the region under a sufficient influence of the gravitation due to the Earth, the Sun, or another celestial body, there forms a local ether which in turn comoves with the gravitational potential of the respective body. In this local-ether theory all the involved physical quantities of the position vectors, time derivatives, propagation velocity, particle velocities, and current density are referred specifically to their respective frames and hence remain unchanged in different frames under Galilean transformations.
       In spite of such a restriction on reference frames, the consequences of this brand-new theory account for a spate of experiments associated with the propagation or interference of electromagnetic wave, and are in accord with a wide variety of experiments commonly ascribed to the special relativity, the general relativity, the Lorentz mass-variation law, or to the de Broglie matter wave. These experiments demonstrate various phenomena, including the Sagnac effect in the global positioning system (GPS), the intercontinental microwave link, the rotating-loop interferometer, and in the Michelson-Gale experiment; the round-trip Sagnac effect in the interplanetary radar; the apparently null effect in the Michelson-Morley experiment; the constancy of the speed of light with a moving source; the spatial isotropy with phase stability in the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment and the one-way fiber-link experiment; the Doppler effects and spatial anisotropy in Roemer's observations and the cosmic microwave background radiation; the effects of the moving medium in Fizeau's experiment and the Sagnac loop interferometry; the gravitational deflection of light by the Sun; the gravitational effect on the interplanetary radar echo time; the gravitational redshift in the Pound-Rebka experiment; the gravitation- and speed-dependent atomic clock rate in GPS, the Hafele-Keating experiment, and in the spacecraft microwave links; the spatial isotropy with frequency stability in the Hughes-Drever experiment and the cavity heterodyne experiment; the resonant absorption in the Ives-Stilwell experiment, the ammonia-maser experiment, and in the Mossbauer rotor experiment; the matter-wave Bragg reflection in the Davisson-Germer experiment; the matter-wave Sagnac effect; and the effects of earth's rotation and gravity in the neutron-wave loop interferometry. Meanwhile, this theory leads to some predictions, particularly those with the effects of earth's motions, which then provide different approaches to test the validity of the local-ether wave equation.