Quantum Mechanics, Electromagnetics, and Gravitation

The east-west directional anisotropy in clock rate observed in the Hafele-Keating experiment with circumnavigation atomic clocks is commonly ascribed to the special relativity. In this Chapter, based on the local-ether wave equation, an entirely different interpretation of this anisotropy is presented by showing that the clock-rate variation can originate from intrinsic quantum properties of atoms. For a particle in a moving atom, the local-ether wave equation leads to a first-order time evolution equation similar to Schrodinger's equation. However, the time derivative connects with a speed-dependent factor similar to that in the Lorentz mass-variation law. Consequently, the quantum energy, the transition frequency, and hence the atomic clock rate decrease with the atom speed by this speed-dependent mass-variation factor. According to the local-ether model, the speed in this factor is referred specifically to a geocentric or heliocentric inertial frame for earthbound or interplanetary atoms, respectively. It is shown that this restriction on the reference frame is actually in accord with the various experimental results, namely, the anisotropy and the clock-rate difference in the Hafele-Keating experiment, the synchronism and the clock-rate adjustment in the global positioning system, and the spatial isotropy in the Hughes-Drever experiment. And the switching of the unique reference frame is in accord with the frequency-shift formulas adopted individually in an earthbound and an interplanetary spacecraft microwave link. Meanwhile, the local-ether model predicts a constant deviation in frequency shift from the calculated result reported in an interplanetary link. This discrepancy then provides a means to test the local-ether wave equation.

This Chapter is based on:

C.C. Su, "A local-ether wave equation and speed-dependent mass and quantum energy," Eur. Phys. J. B, vol. 24, pp. 231-239, Nov. 2001.

C.C. Su, "A quantum-mechanical wave equation complying with the experiment of circumnavigation atomic clocks," in Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 45, no. 2, p. 61, Apr. 2000.