Quantum Electromagnetics
A Local-Ether Wave Equation Unifying
Quantum Mechanics, Electromagnetics, and Gravitation

Chapter 5 Unified Quantum Theory of Electromagnetic and Gravitational Forces

In Chapter 4, based on the local-ether wave equation incorporating a natural frequency and the electric scalar potential, the electromagnetic force together with the inertial mass has been derived. In this Chapter, by incorporating the gravitational potential into the local-ether wave equation, the gravitational force together with the gravitational mass is also derived. Thereby, a unified quantum theory of electromagnetic and gravitational forces in conjunction with the origin and the identity of inertial and gravitational mass is presented. Meanwhile, for a particle bound in an atom, the gravitational potential is found to cause a decrease in the energy of each quantum state of the associated matter wave. The corresponding gravitation-dependence of the transition frequency is in accord with the experiments demonstrating the gravitational redshift. The local-ether wave equation also leads to the gravitation-dependence of the propagation speed of electromagnetic wave, which in turn leads to the deflection of light by the Sun and the increment of echo time in the interplanetary radar. Thereby, based on the wave equation complying with Galilean transformations, alternative interpretations of the evidence supporting the general theory of relativity are provided. However, the derived gravitational redshift originates from a quantum nature of the involved atoms and the gravitation-dependence can be different for different transitions. This discrepancy then provides a means to test the local-ether wave equation.

This Chapter is based on:

C.C. Su, "A local-ether wave equation unifying gravitational and electromagnetic forces," J. Electromagnetic Waves Applicat., vol. 16, pp. 403-410, Mar. 2002.

C.C. Su, "A wave-propagation model for gravitational effects on light deflection and radar echo time," J. Electromagnetic Waves Applicat., vol. 15, pp. 259-268, Feb. 2001.

C.C. Su, "A local-ether wave equation and speed-dependent mass and quantum energy," Eur. Phys. J. B, vol. 24, pp. 231-239, 2001. (While this paper is mainly pertinent to Chapter 6, the gravitational redshift is discussed.)

C.C. Su, "A quantum theory of gravity based on the local-ether wave equation," in Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 1143-1144, Mar. 2001.

A supplement to this Chapter:

C.C. Su, "A Proposed mechanism for the intrinsic redshift and its preferred values purportedly found in quasars based on the local-ether theory," http://arXiv.org/physics/0608164.

Full texts of major papers contributing to this Chapter (in PDF)
(1) Unified theory, (2) Light deflection, (3) Intrinsic redshift