Quantum Electromagnetics
A Local-Ether Wave Equation Unifying
Quantum Mechanics, Electromagnetics, and Gravitation

Chapter 2 Modifications of Lorentz Force Law

It is generally expected from intuition that the electromagnetic force exerted on a charged particle should remain unchanged when observed in different reference frames in uniform motion of translation. In the special relativity, this invariance is achieved by invoking the Lorentz transformation of space and time. However, it is noticed that the electric current generating the magnetic force is commonly the conduction current rather than the convection current. The mobile charged particles forming a conduction current are embedded in a neutralizing matrix. Thus an entirely different interpretation of the invariance of force is possible. In this Chapter we present a new model of the electromagnetic force given in terms of the augmented potentials, which in turn are derived from the electric scalar potential by incorporating a velocity difference between the involved particles. The propagation of the potentials is supposed to follow the local-ether model presented in Chapter 1. All of the position vectors, time derivatives, and velocities involved in the proposed potentials and force law are referred specifically to their respective frames. By virtue of this feature, the electromagnetic force is frame-invariant simply based on Galilean transformations. The proposed model looks quite different from the Lorentz force law, except the electrostatic force. However, under the common low-speed condition where the mobile charged particles drift very slowly with respect to the matrix, it is shown that the proposed model reduces to the Lorentz force law, if the latter is observed in the matrix frame as done tacitly in common practice.

This Chapter is based on:

C.C. Su, "Modifications of the Lorentz force law complying with Galilean transformations and the local-ether propagation model," http://arXiv.org/physics/0211019.

C.C. Su, "Modifications of the Lorentz force law invariant under Galilean transformations," in IEEE Antennas Propagat. Soc. Int. Symp. Dig., vol. 1, pp. 208-211, July 2001.

C.C. Su, "Modifications of the Lorentz force law invariant under Galilean transformations," in Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 46, no. 1, p. 1144, Mar. 2001.

Supplements to this Chapter:

C.C. Su, "Connections between the Riemann and the Lorentz force law," Found. Phys. Lett., vol. 19, pp. 187-194, Apr. 2006.

C.C. Su, "Reexamination of Barnett's experiment based on the modified Lorentz force law," http://arXiv.org/physics/0512179.

Full texts of major papers contributing to this Chapter (in PDF)
Full text, Digest, Riemann force, Barnett's experiment